Methodology of Mozambique NCAP Project
Vulnerability Studies in Maputo Province
The methodology used was the same vulnerability survey protocol developed in the Tanzania NCAP project which is described in more detail in the Tanzanian Methodology section. There was training in the delivery of the survey instrument for university staff and graduate students. The initial surveys were done immediately around Maputo and then the MICOA conducted surveys further into Maputo Province.
Maputo province is 26,058km2 and located in southern Mozambique. The province consists of eight administrative districts. The three of the study sites are the Moamba, Marracuene and Matola districts. Guijá is approximately 300km north of Maputo city. The main languages in the study areas are Changane and Portuguese.
Background on the study sites
Albazine (Distrito Urbano No.4) is around 16km north of Maputo City and approximately 10km from the coast. There is no population data available for Albazine. There is a thriving market and a well-stocked local grocery shop in Albazine, and relatively good transport links to Maputo city (compared to Tenga and Marracuene). There are treated domestic water supplies in Albazine which cost between 51 to 100,000 MZM per month . There is a combination of large and small agricultural landholdings in Albazine which are served by an extensive and well maintained canal system. The majority of local household food production is for sale in local markets as well as for domestic consumption. The main crops grown include bananas and sugar cane (which are vulnerable to high winds), as well as maize, carrots and vegetables. Fish and sea produce are brought from the coast to be sold in Albazine.
There is a railway line through Albazine and a local hospital as well as a malaria spraying program every 3 months. There are lots of chapas (local mini-bus taxis) between Albazine and various locations in Maputo city, it costs around 7,500 MZM to get to Maputo in a chapas. Though the quality of the roads is highly variable, there are tarmac roads into Albazine and a mixture of tarmac and dirt roads within the district.
Guijá district is situated in Gaza province 23°50’S and 24°50’S and between 32°25’E and 33°40’E approximately 300km north of Maputo city, and about 60km west of Xai-Xai, capital of Gaza province. Guijá has a semi-arid climate with an annual average temperature between 25 and 26°C, and annual average precipitation levels of 400 to 600mm. There are over 50,000 people, living in an area of 4,207km2. Population density is estimated to be 17 km2 based on the 1997 census.
Marracuene is a riparian area around 32km north of Maputo City, located at the mouth of the Inkomati River. The 2006 projections for population size in the Marracuene district estimates figures at 50,263, with a population density of 67 people/km2. There are 45 public schools in the district and 8 health posts (INE, 2003). There are several markets in Marracuene where it is possible to buy domestic products. Concrete houses with gardens were constructed in Mumemo after the devastating floods of 2000 to rehouse, both locals and people from other areas. There are both small and large landholdings in Marracuene as well as a significant fishing community which totals 6% of the entire district population . The majority of local household food production (crops, livestock, and fish products) is for sale in local markets as well as for domestic consumption. There are treated water supplies in Marracuene that cost around 20,000 MZM per month for the community pumps. There is a relatively small but important tourist industry in Marracuene including a ferry which goes to Macaneta beach several times a day. There are a number of cafés and pubs on the way to the ferry crossing.
Though the quality of the roads is highly variable, there is a good quality tarmac road into Marracuene from Maputo city and a mixture of tarmac and dirt roads within the district. There is a railway line and chapas to Maputo, but not many chapas travel locally within Marracuene. There are also small boats (12 people maximum) that transport people to Costa do Sol (approximately 10 km from Maputo city) which are cheaper than the chapas.
Tenga is a rural area located 40km north-east of Maputo City and 28km south-east of the district capital Moamba. There is a projected population size for Moamba of 36,460 people, with a population density of 10 people/km2 (INE, 2003). There are 62 public schools in Moamba and 8 health posts (ibid). The majority of people in Tenga depend upon ‘traditional wells’ known as xilovo (seasonal wetlands) for drinking water. There are some constructed wells, but these dry up as the dry season progresses. There is only one permanent water source in Tenga which retains water during the dry season, a xilovo around the course of the Rio Matola, which is around 6km from the village. Other options include getting water from Machava which is 24km away. The area depends upon rain fed farming for subsistence, with most households having only small plots of land to cultivate. A minority of farmers in Tenga occasionally use supplementary irrigation but this is extremely limited due to a lack of water. In Tenga, most people are subsistence farmers who grow cassava and peanuts that are relatively tolerant of dry conditions. Other food crops grown are beans (including the leaves), onions, pumpkin, broccoli, and cashews. Many farmers also have a small number of domestic fowl (chickens, pigeons, and/or ducks) and/or goats, mainly for domestic consumption. There are a few wild fruit trees in Tenga, such as massala, tinsiva, and maphilwa that are consumed locally and occasionally taken to be sold in Machava or Maputo.
In terms of recreation, there is a small bar, and a cinema (a house with a TV) that costs 1,000 MZM (about 2p). The train stops daily (the Maputo – South Africa line) and buses come 3 to 4 times a day from Machava and Moamba. It costs around 9,500 MZM to get to Machava on the bus. The dirt road that leads into Tenga from Machava is severely eroded and impassable after heavy rains.
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