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Linking Adaptation and Mitigation through Community Forestry: Case Studies from Asia

Exploring the role of forests for mitigation, adaptation, and livelihoods can identify potential synergies and trade-offs.These case studies are based on local experiences in Cambodia, Indonesia, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam in an attempt to explore how community forestry may contribute to adaptation and mitigation goals. They are exploratory and descriptive in nature and although not purporting to be representative of the region, they provide a foundation for a better understanding of these relationships. The case studies for the five focus countries are included with this publication.

Ban Huay Win, Nan Province, Thailand

This research aims to address the potential linkages between mitigation and adaptation in community forestry contexts. This case study highlights the work undertaken in Ban Huay Win, Nan Province, Thailand, from which data was gathered and compiled alongside findings from four other sites across Asia (Meru Betiri National Park, Indonesia; Dhanusa, Nepal; Da Loc Commune, Vietnam and Seima Protected Forest, Cambodia) to analysehow and why adaptation considerations must be integrated within forest-based mitigation efforts such as REDD+.


Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) methodologies facilitated the collection, presentation, and analysis of the data with rural community members.

Research questions that directed the focus group discussions and interviews generally addressed:

  1. What have been the physical changes in the local environment over the recent past?
  2. What have been the impacts of any such changes on local communities and their livelihoods?
  3. What are the sustainable livelihood assets possessed by the community, particularly linked to forests, which might contribute to adaptive capacity?
  4. ƒƒHow are community forestry management strategies contributing to adaptation and mitigation needs?
  5. ƒƒHow are forest management strategies, including mitigation initiatives, potentially adversely impacting the adaptive capacity of local communities?

Key Outcomes

The case studies provide important lessons on the role of community forestry in Asia in contributing to both climate change adaptation and mitigation needs. They provide glimpses into the various ways community forestry supports community resilience not only through the sustainable management of natural resources, but also through the enhancement of social and human capital. They also offer valuable lessons on community uses and management of forests in a variety of contexts and the complex interplay between local livelihoods and the physical environment. Finally, in addition to the positive contributions, the case studies highlight potential trade-offs between mitigation and adaptation objectives, and local livelihoods and development needs; recommendations are made on how to address these issues.


The research and publication of these case studies was funded by the Climate Knowledge Development Network (CDKN), REDD-net, Adaptation Knowledge Platform, and Raks Thai Foundation (CARE Thailand). The following organizations assisted the study: the Cambodia Rural Development Team (CRDT), CARE Vietnam, CARE Nepal, Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry Vietnam, Lembaga Alam Tropika Indonesia (LATIN), and Raks Thai Foundation (CARE Thailand).

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