Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change through Coastal Afforestation in Bangladesh (CBACC-CF)
The National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) and the Initial National Communication (INC) established that a weak economy and widespread poverty in Bangladesh has contributed to low adaptive capacity to withstand the adverse impacts of climate change. The vulnerability context of climate change-related extreme weather events. the gradual change phenomena in the physical system include changes in salinity concentration in surface water and soil, coastal inundation, and drainage congestion. Changes in intensity and the frequency of tropical cyclones and storm surges will occur, as will changes in tidal height. Compared to inline areas, physical vulnerability is high for coastal areas, which are more exposed to different vulnerability factors. Adaptation of coastal communities therefore requires effective policies, capacity development, and specific interventions that directly tackle the risks posed by climate change, including variability. Agriculture, fisheries, forestry and forestry products, and livestock are the primary sources of rural livelihoods of the coastal communities. All these sectors are vulnerable both to gradual change phenomena and extreme weather events related to climate change. Coastal and marine fishing communities are also vulnerable to cyclones and storm surges. A well-maintained coastal greenbelt with adequate buffer zones can reduce vulnerability and protect settlements. At the same time, forestry products provide substantial livelihood support and meet a portion of domestic needs. Community participation to manage coastal afforestation and a long-term agreement between the Forest Department and Ministry of Land are necessary to maintain the coastal greenbelt and effective buffer zones. The introduction of alternative livelihood options creates new potential for sustainable income sources and is also necessary to relieve some of the pressure on demand for forestry resources in the coastal area.
The overall objective of the Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change through Coastal Afforestation in Bangladesh (CBACC-CF) project is to reduce vulnerability of coastal communities to the impacts of climate change-induced risks in the following four Coastal Forest Districts (CFD): Raipur of Anwara Upazila of Chittagong; Sukhar of Hatia Upazila of Noakhali; Char Kukri-Mukri of Char Fassion Upazila of Bhola; and Naltuna of Barguna Sadar Upazila of Patuakhali. The CBACC-CF project highlights the need for sustainable livelihood alternatives and implementation of responsive policies to increase the adaptive capacity of highly vulnerable coastal communities through the incorporation of recurrent income generation options. The project encourages and promotes knowledge-sharing between the four main project components to leverage opportunities for learning and to enable successful community-based adaptation approaches to be replicated in other vulnerable coastal regions, both within and outside of Bangladesh. The project has implemented community-based climate risk reduction measures in targeted areas that are especially vulnerable to climate change. In particular, the project will ensure the buffer zone measures promoted by ongoing projects take anticipated climate risks into account. The project has also facilitated diversification of livelihoods and alternative income opportunities in order to increase the resilience of communities affected by resource deprivation. The ‘Forest, Fish and Fruit’ (FFF) model has proven to be a successful initiative in this intrusion as a result of frequent climate-induced flooding. Innovative mechanisms such as rainwater harvesting, micro surface and ground water treatment facilities have been piloted and demonstrated for up-scaling over time. The project also maintains a strong focus on increasing national and community capacity to better integrate measures for identifying and addressing climate change risk into development planning processes. Training policymakers at the national level to integrate climate risks into coastal zone planning will serve to ensure that priorities outlined in the National Communications to the UNFCCC and in the NAPA can be appropriately implemented. Further, integrating methods of adaptation to climate change risks into legislation related to coastal zoning regulations and facilitating alignment of existing coastal management programmes will build community resilience. The project aims to improve the flow of information between climate monitoring, forecasting and the provision of early warning services for coastal areas.
The project will implement community-based climate risk reduction measures in targeted communities that are especially vulnerable to climate change. In particular, the project will:
- Ensure that buffer zone measures promoted by ongoing projects take anticipated climate change risks into account.
- Facilitate diversification of livelihoods and alternative employment opportunities in order to reduce threats to existing and new coastal buffer zones and make longer term protective measures viable.
- Develop secure sources of potable water for communities vulnerable to saline intrusion as a result of frequent climate-induced flooding. Innovative mechanisms such as rainwater harvesting, micro surface and ground water treatment facilities will be piloted and demonstrated for up-scaling over time.
- Develop capacities at the national and community levels to better integrateclimate change risk into development planning processes.
- Train policy makers at the national level to integrate climate risks into coastal zone planning and ensure that priorities outlined in the National Communications to the UNFCCC and in the NAPA can be appropriately addressed.
- Integrate climate change risks into legislation related to coastal zoning regulations and facilitate alignment of existing coastal management programmes toward stronger integration and climate resilience.
- Ensure that information flows are improved between climate monitoring, forecasting and early warning services to communities in coastal areas.