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Key reports for the CC&E Network 2014-2016

These publications provide insights and learning on key topics in climate change mitigation, adaptation and sustainable development, and highlight areas for future research and policy development.
Multiple Authors
Middelgruden Offshore Wind Farm in Denmark_United Nations via Flickr


Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change in 2015, which has now entered into force after having been ratified by more than 55 parties, 2016 was noted by many as the year for implementation and action. Indeed, there is much to do and climate change is one of several crosscutting challenges facing the human population.

The resources collated here attempt to reflect the breadth of the Climate Change & Environment Network. They provide insights and learning on key topics in climate change mitigation, adaptation and sustainable development, and highlight areas for future research and policy development.

Note: The publication descriptions provided below are based on text included in the institutional description of the publication and the publication itself (including but not limited to the Foreword(s) and Executive Summary), and a review of the contents. This document is available to download from the right-hand column.

The Adaptation Gap Report 2016

Building on a previous report in 2014, the United Nations Environment Programme’s Adaptation Gap Report focuses on finance, technology and knowledge gaps in climate change adaptation. It also explores the implications of failing to limit global carbon emissions. The report assesses the financial costs for developing countries to adapt to climate change up to 2050, and compares this with the amount of money currently available to meet them under the Paris Agreement. It considers the options for addressing the current disparity between required and available funds, in particular the role of private finance in bridging this ‘gap’. It also details ways in which governments and businesses can work together to achieve better integration of adaptation practices. This report is relevant to those working in climate finance, national adaptation planning and international governance.

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The Emissions Gap Report 2016

The United Nations Environment Programme “Emissions Gap Report” provides an independent scientific assessment of the current global greenhouse emissions trend based on individual countries’ actions and pledges, and compares this with the emissions trajectories consistent with the realization of 1.5 – 2 °C warming by the year 2100. It also details key options to bridge this emissions ‘gap’ in order to meet this goal of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, including the potential of non-state action and energy efficiency in enhancing the ambition associated with the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs). This publication will be useful for those associated with and informing the INDCs, and those looking for synergies between climate change mitigation and the Sustainable Development Goals.

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Summary of the sixth Global Environment Outlook GEO-6 regional assessments

The United Nations Environment Programme “Global Environmental Outlook” assessments review the regional priorities and the state of the environment for each of the six UNEP regions: Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, North America, and West Asia. They also document the main trends likely to affect the future environment of each region and the actions needed to progress towards a more sustainable future. This summary document provides, for each region, an overview of the region, the key lessons learnt from each assessment and policy-relevant messages for moving forwards. This publication will be of interest to those involved in national and international environmental and development policy and the funding and prioritization of regional activities.

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Global Gender and Environment Outlook

Acknowledging the pervasive threat that gender inequality poses to sustainable development, the United Nations Environment Programme “Global Gender and Environment Outlook” examines the links between gender and the environment. It assesses the gender-dependence of social forces impacting the environment, the degree to which the impacts of ongoing and future environmental changes are gender-differentiated, what actions would enable women and men to have equal weighting in achieving progress towards a sustainable future, and which socio-economic aspects result in gender-differentiated outcomes. This publication will be of interest and use to those involved in all aspects of climate adaptation, development and the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

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GrEEEn Solutions for Liveable Cities

Building on experience from projects in 11 cities across Southeast Asia the Asian Development Bank book on “GREEEN Solutions for Livable Cities” presents an integrated, flexible and scalable approach to address some of the challenges affecting the quality of life of city residents, with a focus on Economic competitiveness, Environmental sustainability and social Equity. It provides a framework, practical solutions and good practice for sustainable urban development planning, including the use of low-carbon technologies, enabling institutional structures, innovative financing, responsive governance and policy reform. This book will be useful for those involved in, funding and/or advising on urban planning and development, and urban adaptation to climate change.

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Confronting Drought in Africa’s Drylands: Opportunities for Enhancing Resilience

This book, published by the World Bank Group, provides an analysis of current and future drivers of vulnerability and resilience in dryland regions. It identifies promising interventions over the medium-term (the next two decades) that would increase the resilience of people living in dryland regions of West and East Africa to drought and other shocks, and quantifies their likely costs and benefits. This includes an appraisal of the opportunities and challenges associated with various agricultural systems in these regions, and with ecosystem and market-based approaches, social protection and disaster risk reduction. It also describes the policy trade-offs to be addressed when devising drylands development strategies. This book will be useful to those involved in local to regional adaptation and development planning and implementation in the dryland regions of Africa.

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Options for Results Monitoring and Evaluation for Resilience Building Operations

This paper, published by the World Bank Group, provides a synthesis and illustrative overview of recent and ongoing work being undertaken on disaster and climate resilience monitoring and evaluation (M&E), including examples of M&E systems and efforts to build capacity for M&E for climate and disaster resilience projects. The paper describes the overarching objectives and components of M&E in this area, including “principles, results frameworks, indicators and evaluation”. It also identifies emerging lessons from early applications of M&E and the keys steps required to develop M&E systems for resilience-building initiatives. This paper will be useful to all those informing the funding, design, implementation and evaluation of projects, programmes and initiatives aimed at climate and disaster resilience building and climate change adaptation.

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Towards zero-emission efficient and resilient buildings Global Status Report 2016

This first Global Status Report on zero-emission, efficient and resilient buildings provides data on current energy consumption and use patterns by the building sector globally and how this is factored into the National Determined Contributions and ambitions of cities and the private sector. The report details: key sustainable building policy developments; building technology solutions; investment and finance options to support sector transformation; pathways towards sustainable buildings; and identifies key priorities for action. It will be followed by annual updates that will enable the tracking of progress in the global transition towards low-emission, resilient real estate. It will be of interest to those working in climate change mitigation and sustainable development at the urban to national level.

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Pursuing the 1.5°C Limit: Benefits and Opportunities

This report, published by the United Nations Development Programme and the Climate Vulnerable Forum, identifies the implications, opportunities and possible benefits (global and regional) of limiting global warming to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. It “draws on world leading climate analysis to illustrate the potential benefits from clean, green and climate resilient forms of development”, and demonstrates how the success and price effectiveness of renewable energy means that sustainable development is already achievable. It also explores benefits and opportunities. This report will be of interest to those working at all levels of development and climate change mitigation, particularly those looking at sustainable economic growth and employment.

Access the report:—benefits-and-opportunities.html

Independent Power Projects in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Five Key Countries

Independent power projects (IPPs) are now present in 18 Sub-Saharan countries and present an important source of investment their power sectors. This book evaluates the experience of IPPs in Sub-Saharan Africa to date, and identifies lessons that can help African countries to attract greater and better private investment. It looks at five in-depth case studies in Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda, all of which have extensive experience with IPPs. The core of this unprecedented analysis explores whether IPPs have actually benefitted the region, and how they might be improved. It also highlights the challenges facing policy makers and the factors contributing towards healthy investment climates. This book will be of interest to those working to improve energy access and security in developing contexts, and to increasing investment in renewable energy.

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Actions on Air Quality: Policies & Programmes for Improving Air quality around the World

This report by the United Nations Environment Programme provides a snapshot overview of global progress towards improving air quality, including some details of policy actions planned and being undertaken by countries on this issue. The report presents ten policy areas that have the potential to significantly improve air quality. These relate to indoor air pollution, vehicle emissions, public and non- motorized transport, industrial emissions, open burning of waste, and national air quality standards and regulations. The report includes world maps indicating how countries are performing in the six categories, provides illustrative case studies demonstrating good practices in each case, and elucidates some cross- cutting challenges in the air quality policies and programmes analysed.

This report is relevant for those working on governance and policy relating to air quality and pollution. It is a summary of fourteen regional reports, which can be found here.

Source: programmes-improving-air-quality

The Cost of Air Pollution: Strengthening the Economic Case for Action

This World Bank and Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (University of Washington, Seattle) study assesses the economic costs associated with premature mortality from air pollution and aims to strengthen the business case for governments to act ambitiously to address this issue. It explores the health and economic impacts of air pollution and presents the results of the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study. Overall, it offers the most extensive estimates of exposure and trends in air pollution levels and their associated burden of disease to date.

This report is relevant to those working on air pollution and related issues, including urban and national planning.


Related material: The 2016 World Health Organisation global assessment of ambient air pollution exposure can be found at

Investing in Sustainable Mountain Development: Opportunities, Resources and Benefits

This report by the Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, makes the case for investing in the sustainable development of mountain communities and conserving mountain ecosystems. It describes how this investment doesn’t just benefit mountain dwelling populations, but if fact benefit much of the global population and sustainable development worldwide. It presents a diverse series of case studies from around the world that show how sustainable mountain development initiatives have enhanced regional economies, fostered social development and safeguarded mountain ecosystems, and offers key messages for policy-making.

This report is relevant for those working in development, disaster risk and adaptation in mountainous areas and their surrounding regions.


The Global Climate Finance Architecture

This briefing paper by the Overseas Development Institute and Heinrich Böll Stiftung provides an overview of global climate finance and its architecture, including multilateral, bilateral, regional and national channels for climate finance and climate change funds. It includes quick-reference tables for the main funds and initiatives, and implementing bodies and institutions, and a schematic diagram of global climate finance architecture.

This paper is useful for those who are new to climate finance or in need of a refresher on its architecture.


The Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement, within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), aims to ‘strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change, in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty’, and restrict global temperature rise this century to well below 2 degrees Celsius. It lays out the requirements for the Nationally Determine Contributions (NDCs) and the Global Stocktake process. It further details expectations, of both the parties and convention mechanisms, regarding climate change mitigation and adaptation, climate finance, capacity building, loss and damage, technology development and transfer, and transparency. It also established and details the ‘global goal on adaptation’.

The Paris Agreement is an important document for all involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation, and particularly those involved in national, regional and international level planning and governance.


Related material: The Pocket Guide on the Paris Agreement by the European Capacity Building Initiative (ECBI) is ‘meant as a companion for government and non-government participants in the negotiations under the Ad Hoc Group on the Paris Agreement (APA), and also for national-level stakeholders who wish to understand what the Paris Agreement means for national-level implementation. The language has been streamlined and simplified, and some initial analysis is included.’ The European Capacity Building Initiative (ecbi) is a network initiative between Oxford Climate Policy, the International Institute for Environment and Development, and the Legal Response Initiative (LRI), has over a decade’s experience in building trust and capacity in the context of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Guide can be found at:

Mainstreaming Environment and Climate for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development: A Handbook to Strengthen Planning and Budgeting Processes

This handbook, produced by the United Nations Development Programme and the United Nations Environment Programme, is designed as guidance for mainstreaming pro-poor, gender responsive environment and climate concerns into planning, budgeting and monitoring, and putting these issues at the heart of economic decision-making. It details the importance of mainstreaming these concerns and the political economy of mainstreaming. It then looks at how these concerns can be mainstreamed into national planning processes, budgeting processes, sector strategies and subnational plans and budgets, and national monitoring processes; and the management of private sector investment in natural resources. It further details lessons learned from implementing mainstreaming at different levels.

This handbook is relevant to those working in national and sub-national planning and of interest to those engaging with the private sector around sustainability issues.

Source: environment-and-climate-for-poverty-reduction-and-.html

Good practices and lessons learned in adaptation planning processes addressing ecosystems, human settlements, water resources and health, and in processes and structures for linking national and local adaptation planning: a synthesis of case studies

This document by the UNFCCC Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice synthesizes insights and lessons learned from 170 case studies contributed to the UNFCCC’s Nairobi Work Programme. It covers: ‘(1) available and implemented tools and methods for adaptation planning processes addressing ecosystems, human settlements, water resources and health; (2) good practices and lessons learned in relation to adaptation planning processes, including monitoring and evaluation, for the four thematic areas addressed; and (3) good practices and lessons learned in relation to processes and structures for linking national and local adaptation planning.’ It also identifies possible steps to address the challenges and gaps that emerged from the case studies.’

This document is relevant to those working in climate change adaptation. Source:

Related material: Find out more about the Nairobi Work Programme and related resources here:

Making the Case for Ecosystem-based Adaptation: The Global Mountain EBA Programme in Nepal, Peru and Uganda

This report is a legacy document of the EbA Mountain Programme, delivered through a partnership between the German Government, UNEP, UNDP and IUCN, together with the Governments of Nepal, Peru and Uganda. The Programme aimed to enhance the capacity of these countries [Nepal, Peru and Uganda] to build ecosystem resilience, employ ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) options and ‘reduce the vulnerability of communities, with particular emphasis on mountain ecosystems’. The report captures and showcases the lessons learned during the process of making the case for the inclusion of EbA in broader adaptation strategies to government and other stakeholders. This includes making the case for the multiple benefits of EbA, making the economic case for EbA, making the case for policy change for EbA, making the case for financing EbA, and the opportunities and challenges for scaling these lessons. It includes 15 case studies from across the three countries.

This report is relevant to those promoting and attempting to mainstream ecosystem-based adaptation and nature-based solutions in sub-national to regional level plans, and those working in mountainous areas.

Source: ecosystem-based-adaptation.html

Sustainable Energy Access Planning: A Framework

This report by the Asian Development Bank ‘presents a framework for sustainable energy access planning that planners and policy makers can use to design cost-effective clean energy supply systems that both poor and non- poor can sustainably access to meet at least the minimum amount of energy for their basic needs.’ The framework consists of assessments of: energy poverty, energy demand, energy resources, cost, benefits, sustainability and affordability.

This report is relevant to those working on energy access, national planning and international development.


Adaptation to climate change in Switzerland 2012: Goals, challenges and fields of action

This Action Plan by the Federal Council’s adaptation strategy presents a coordinated course of action for Switzerland’s adjustment to climate change. The strategy was adopted on 2 March 2012. This first part of the strategy describes the goals, challenges and fields of action needed to adapt to climate change, including utilizing the opportunities it presents while minimising the risks and increasing the adaptive capacity of its natural and socio-economic systems. It covers a range of areas, ‘from water management, natural hazard management, agriculture and forestry to energy, tourism, biodiversity management, health and spatial development. For these sectors ‘fields of action are defined, adaptation goals formulated and possible ways of achieving these goals outlined.’ The publication also explores the interfaces and synergies between the sectors.

This publication is relevant for those working on climate change related issues in Switzerland and across Europe.


Related material : Related overviews and resources on Climate-ADAPT:

Action Plan 2014-2019: Second part of the Federal Council’s strategy on climate change adaptation

This Action Plan by the Federal Council’s adaptation strategy presents a coordinated course of action for Switzerland’s adjustment to climate change. The strategy was adopted on 2 March 2012. This second part of the strategy presents adaptation measures aimed at seizing the opportunities offered by climate change while minimizing risk and increasing the adaptive capacity of society, the economy and the environment. The Action Plan contains 63 measures, 54 of which concern the following sectors: water management, water management, natural hazards, agriculture, forest management, energy, tourism, biodiversity management, health and territorial development. Nine measures are cross-sectional and aim to improve the knowledge base and capacity to act through supporting improved coordination, information and awareness.

This publication is relevant for those working on climate change related issues in Switzerland and across Europe.

Source: (available in German, French and Italian)

Mountains and Climate Change: A Global Concern

The publication of the Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and Geographica Bernensia, aimed to synthesise the existing knowledge on mountains and climate change and emphasize mountains’ relevance to global sustainable development. It further raises ‘awareness of possible changes and challenges for mountain regions resulting from climate change’. It describes the current (as of 2014) knowledge on: climate change in mountains (including the European Alps, Tropical Andes, Himalayas and the Carpathian Region); issues relating to water, glaciers, hazards, biodiversity and food security in mountains; and mountain economies.

This publication is relevant to all those working in mountainous areas, in countries with mountainous areas and in international development and climate governance.


This Report Tracking Exercise has been produced for the Climate Change and Environment Network, funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, managed by Jürg Füssler at INFRAS, and undertaken by Julia Barrott, Research Fellow and Knowledge Manager at the Stockholm Environment Institute’s Oxford Office.

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